Solar flares, coronal mass ejections and solar energetic particle event characteristics
Institute for Astronomy, Astrophysics, Space Applications and Remote Sensing (IAASARS), National Observatory of Athens, I. Metaxa & Vas. Pavlou St., 15236
2 Section of Astrogeophysics, Department of Physics, University of Ioannina, 45110 Ioannina, Greece
3 Research Center for Astronomy and Applied Mathematics (RCAAM) of the Academy of Athens, 4 Soranou Efesiou St., 11527 Athens, Greece
4 European Space Research and Technology Centre (ESTEC), Space Environment and Effects Section, Keperlaan 1, 2200AG Noordwijk, The Netherlands
* Corresponding author: firstname.lastname@example.org
Accepted: 11 October 2016
A new catalogue of 314 solar energetic particle (SEP) events extending over a large time span from 1984 to 2013 has been compiled. The properties as well as the associations of these SEP events with their parent solar sources have been thoroughly examined. The properties of the events include the proton peak integral flux and the fluence for energies above 10, 30, 60 and 100 MeV. The associated solar events were parametrized by solar flare (SF) and coronal mass ejection (CME) characteristics, as well as related radio emissions. In particular, for SFs: the soft X-ray (SXR) peak flux, the SXR fluence, the heliographic location, the rise time and the duration were exploited; for CMEs the plane-of-sky velocity as well as the angular width were utilized. For radio emissions, type III, II and IV radio bursts were identified. Furthermore, we utilized element abundances of Fe and O. We found evidence that most of the SEP events in our catalogue do not conform to a simple two-class paradigm, with the 73% of them exhibiting both type III and type II radio bursts, and that a continuum of event properties is present. Although, the so-called hybrid or mixed events are found to be present in our catalogue, it was not possible to attribute each SEP event to a mixed/hybrid sub-category. Moreover, it appears that the start of the type III burst most often precedes the maximum of the SF and thus falls within the impulsive phase of the associated SF. At the same time, type III bursts take place within ≈5.22 min, on average, in advance from the time of maximum of the derivative of the SXR flux (Neupert effect). We further performed a statistical analysis and a mapping of the logarithm of the proton peak flux at E > 10 MeV, on different pairs of the parent solar source characteristics. This revealed correlations in 3-D space and demonstrated that the gradual SEP events that stem from the central part of the visible solar disk constitute a significant radiation risk. The velocity of the associated CMEs, as well as the SXR peak flux and fluence, are all fairly significantly correlated to both the proton peak flux and the fluence of the SEP events in our catalogue. The strongest correlation to SEP characteristics is manifested by the CME velocity.
Key words: Solar flares / Coronal mass ejections / Radio bursts / Solar energetic particles / Element abundances / Neupert effect
© A. Papaioannou et al., Published by EDP Sciences 2016
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