Space Climate
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Fig. 8

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The open square is our improved prediction of sunspot maximum for cycle #24, viz. 62 ± 12 sunspot numbers, with its estimated error (vertical line). The filled and open circles are taken from the data of Figure 4, but they have been shifted ahead by 378 and 130 years for the upper and the bottom panels, respectively. In the upper panel we have added Nagovitsyn’s (2006) annual sunspot number time series (taken from http://www.gao.spb.ru/database/esai/)(triangles), shifted ahead by 378 years and Vaquero et al. (2010) data (black star). In 1629 and in 2008 (upper panel) there was a transition to another Grand Episode, viz. to the Maunder Minimum and to the forthcoming Grand Episode, respectively. In contrast, the year 1878 (bottom panel) was within the 1724–1924 Regular Episode.

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