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De-trended VTEC rate versus cosine of solar zenith angle, for three representative solar flares, with decreasing intensity; from top to bottom: day 301 of 2003, precursor flare of Halloween storm (X17.2 flare, day 301, 2003, 39777 s of GPS time), M9.3 flare, day 216 of 2011 (13908 s of GPS time) and C3.9 flare, day 210 of 2011 (44134 s of GPS time). The corresponding regression lines and 1-sigma boundaries are given.
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