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Fig. 9.


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Composite means of cloud cover anomalies (%, black solid line, left-hand axis) calculated by subtracting from the observed record the time average of the record over a five-day period starting at t −10 (normalization period) and the corresponding CR flux anomalies (%, black dashed line, right-hand axis) processed in the same way. Based on MC simulations two sets of confidence intervals at the two-tailed p = 0.05 (dashed lines) and p = 0.01 (dotted lines) are calculated. The confidence intervals shown as red lines are calculated from a PDF of 10,000 MC simulations during the normalization period, while the confidence intervals shown as blue lines are calculated from PDFs of 10,000 MC simulations at each t individually (blue lines). Red lines indicate that the t +5 cloud anomalies are 3.5σ (p < 0.00), while the lines show the same anomalies to be 1.89σ (p = 0.06).

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