Open Access

Table 1.

Main ionosphere satellite missions potentially relevant in the creation of the IWS by their particle data and wave recording.

No Mission Year Orbit Payload
1 Atmosphere Explorer-A 1963–1966 255–916 km, i = 57° Sensors for neutral and ionized species of atmospheric gazes.
2 Atmosphere Explorer-B 1966–1967 276–2725 km, i = 64° Sensors for neutral and ionized species of atmospheric gazes.
3 Atmosphere Explorer-C 1973–1978 149–4294 km, i = 68° Sensors for neutral and ionized species of atmospheric gazes, optical and UV spectrometers.
4 Atmosphere Explorer-D 1975–1976 154–3816 km, i = 90° Sensors for neutral and ionized species of atmospheric gazes.
5 Atmosphere Explorer-E 1975–1976 156–2983 km, i = 20° Sensors for neutral and ionized species of atmospheric gazes.
6 Dynamics Explorer 2 1981–1983 309–1012 km, i = 90° Sensors for neutral and ionized species of atmospheric gazes, sensors for quasi DC magnetic field, DC and AC electric field.
7 San Marco D/L 1988–1988 262–619 km, i = 2° Neutral wind probe, plasma probes, electric field probe.
8 Active (Intercosmos-24) 1989–1993 500–2500 km, i = 82° Plasma probes, sensors for quasi DC electric and magnetic fields, wave probes, energetic particle probe, VLF-transmitter.
9 APEX 1991 440–3000 km, i = 82° Sensors for neutral and ionized species of atmospheric gazes, electric beam and plasma injectors.
10 FREJA 1992 650–1800 km, i = 65° Plasma probes, high data rate electromagnetic wave probes, energetic particle probes, UV imager.
11 GPS system 1994 20,200 km, i different, ≥24 satellite For ionosphere research: total electron content (TEC).
12 ROCSat-1 1999–2004 600 km, i = 35° Plasma probes.
13 CHAMP 2000–2010 454 km, i = 87° Magnetic field probes, precise accelerometer.
14 Variant (on Sich-1M S/C) 2004–2005 280–650 km, i = 83° Electric probes, electromagnetic wave probes, electric current probes, fluxgate magnetometer.
15 DEMETER 2004–2010 ~710 km, changed to 660 km, i = 98° Plasma probes, electric field and AC magnetic field probes.
16 Compass-2 2006–2007 ~400 km, i = 79° Electromagnetic wave probes in ULF-VLF bands.

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