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Fig. 7


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Predicted Kp at 1-minute cadence. From top to bottom: solar wind velocity at spacecraft location; horizontal geomagnetic field at NGK; final and predicted Kp; prediction lead time τ in minutes. In the third panel, the red solid curve is predicted Kp from IRF-Kp-2017, and green dashed curve using IRF-Kp-2017-h3. The labels 1, 2, and 3 (first and third panels) mark three moments with observed inputs and corresponding predictions. The three horizontal red lines indicates the corresponding 3-hour intervals that the forecasts represent.

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