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Dose rate in water per primary flux function for protons (a) and 4He ions (b) at different depth (2,4,6…20 and surface) of the Martian atmosphere. The total vertical atmospheric depth under a surface pressure of 827 Pa is about 23 g/cm2. Solid lines are for the total dose rate while dashed lines represent the upward contribution. Black lines mark the deep space case similar to Figure 2.
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