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(a) Temporal variation of battery voltage (charge). The lines in gray show abnormal voltages during daytime hours when the panel was also charging the battery. (b) S 4 index for all the 1.6 GHz GNSS signals transmitted by satellites with elevation greater than 25°. (c) Absolute vertical TEC derived from code and phase measurements provided by the platform and from the MIT Madrigal TEC maps. Note that 1 TECU corresponds to 1 × 1016 electrons/m2 or 0.16 m delay error in the GPS L1 = 1.575 GHz signal.
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