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(a) Daytime Ne profiles measured at three different geomagnetic latitudes: equatorial (green), midlatitude (red), and higher midlatitude (blue). (b, c, and d) The figures in each of the three panels reproduce each of the profiles and the inferred ion distributions in the same format as in Figure 1. The two purple arrows in panel c formulate the difference between the inferred H+ and O+ densities at the transition height as evidence for the existence of extra ionization. Single purple arrows in panels b and d indicate coincidence between the two values.
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