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Time series of annual means of instrumental data: solar outputs at 1 AU, including B (nT), V (km s−1), N (cm−3) and TSI (W m−2), geomagnetic indices, i.e., aa (nT), IDV (nT), Dst (nT), AE (nT) and PC and cosmic-ray flux, i.e., CR, based on measurements from the Climax neutron monitor (105 counts h−1), compared with the sunspot number time series (R). The ordinate axes (not shown) are arbitrarily set to yield comparable amplitudes for all parameters. Vertical dashed lines mark solar minima. Solar cycles are numbered. (From Demetrescu et al. 2010).
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