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Table 3.

Characteristics of the Norwegian 2012 and 2030 high-voltage power grid models. True groundings refer to nodes with a finite earthing resistance. Average node resistance is related to true groundings and contains the transformer and earthing resistances. The average line resistance refers to all lines, also within autotransformer stations. As usual, these values correspond to the single conductor description. Lines inside stations refer to short conductor sections related to autotransformers.

2012 2030
Nodes 162 205
True grounding 134 151
Transmission lines 174 197
Lines inside stations 27 65
Average line length [km] 40.9 42.9
Average node resistance [ohm] 0.61 0.59
Average line resistance [ohm] 0.41 0.35

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