Open Access
J. Space Weather Space Clim.
Volume 4, 2014
Article Number A10
Number of page(s) 8
Published online 17 March 2014
  • Adam, A., E. Pracser, and V. Wesztergom, Estimation of the electric resistivity distribution (EURHOM) in the European lithosphere in the frame of the EURISGIC WP2 project, Acta Geod. Geophys. Hung., 47, 377–387, DOI: 10.1556/AGeod.47.2012.4.1, 2012. [CrossRef]
  • Bolduc, L., GIC observations and studies in the Hydro-Quebec power system, J. Atmos. Sol. Terr. Phys., 64 (16), 1793–1802, 2002. [CrossRef]
  • Boteler, D.H., R.J. Pirjola, and H. Nevanlinna, The effects of geomagnetic disturbances on electrical systems at the earth’s surface, Adv. Space Res., 22, 17–27, DOI: 10.1016/S0273-1177(97)01096-X, 1998. [CrossRef]
  • Elovaara, J., P. Lindblad, A. Viljanen, T. Mäkinen, R. Pirjola, S. Larsson, and B. Kielén, Geomagnetically induced currents in the Nordic power system and their effects on equipment, control, protection and operation, Paper 36-301 of the Proceedings of the CIGRE 1992 Session, 30 August–5 September, Paris, 10 pp., 1992.
  • Kappenman, J.G., An overview of the impulsive geomagnetic field disturbances and power grid impacts associated with the violent Sun-Earth connection events of 29–31 October 2003 and a comparative evaluation with other contemporary storms, Space Weather, 3, S08C01, DOI: 10.1029/2004SW000128, 2005. [CrossRef]
  • Korja, T., How is the European Lithosphere Imaged by Magnetotellurics? Surv. Geophys., 28, 239–272, DOI: 10.1007/s10712-007-9024-9, 2007. [CrossRef]
  • Korja, T., M. Engels, A.A. Zhamaletdinov, A.A. Kovtun, N.A. Palshin, M.Yu. Smirnov, A.D. Tokarev, V.E. Asming, L.L. Vanyan, I.L. Vardaniants, and BEAR Working Group, Crustal conductivity in Fennoscandia a compilation of a database on crustal conductance in the Fennoscandian Shield, Earth Planets Space, 54, 535–558, 2002.
  • Mäkinen, T., Geomagnetically induced currents in the Finnish power transmission system, 32, Finnish Meteorological Institute Geophysical Publications, 101 p., 1993.
  • Molinski, T.S., Why utilities respect geomagnetically induced currents, J. Atmos. Sol. Terr. Phys., 64, 1765–1778, 2002. [CrossRef]
  • Pirjola, R., Induction in power transmission lines during geomagnetic disturbances, Space Sci. Rev., 35, 185–193, 1983. [CrossRef]
  • Pirjola, R., Effects of space weather on high-latitude ground systems, Adv. Space Res., 36, 2231–2240, DOI: 10.1016/j.asr.2003.04.074, 2005. [CrossRef]
  • Pulkkinen, A., S. Lindahl, A. Viljanen, and R. Pirjola, October 29–31, 2003 geomagnetic storm: geomagnetically induced currents and their relation to problems in the Swedish high-voltage power transmission system, Space Weather, 3, S08C03, DOI: 10.1029/2004SW000123, 2005. [CrossRef]
  • Pulkkinen, A., R. Pirjola, and A. Viljanen, Statistics of extreme geomagnetically induced current events, Space Weather, 6, S07001, DOI: 10.1029/2008SW000388, 2008. [CrossRef]
  • Pulkkinen, A., E. Bernabeu, J. Eichner, C. Beggan, and A.W.P. Thomson, Generation of 100-year geomagnetically induced current scenarios, Space Weather, 10, S04003, DOI: 10.1029/2011SW000750, 2012. [CrossRef]
  • Viljanen, A., The relation between geomagnetic variations and their time derivatives and implications for estimation of induction risks, Geophys. Res. Lett., 24, 631–634, 1997. [CrossRef]
  • Viljanen, A., and E. Tanskanen, Climatology of rapid geomagnetic variations at high latitudes over two solar cycles, Ann. Geophys., 29, 10, 2011. [CrossRef]
  • Viljanen, A., H. Nevanlinna, K. Pajunpää, and A. Pulkkinen, Time derivative of the horizontal geomagnetic field as an activity indicator, Ann. Geophys., 19, 1107–1118,, 2001. [CrossRef]
  • Viljanen, A., R. Pirjola, M. Wik, A. Adam, E. Pracser, Ya. Sakharov, and J. Katkalov, Continental scale modelling of geomagnetically induced currents, J. Space Weather Space Clim., 2, A17,, 2012. [CrossRef] [EDP Sciences]
  • Wallerius, A., Solen gav Sverige en strömstöt, Ny teknik, teknisk tidskrift, 29, 3, 1982.
  • Wik, M., A. Viljanen, R. Pirjola, A. Pulkkinen, P. Wintoft, and H. Lundstedt, Calculation of geomagnetically induced currents in the 400 kV power grid in Southern Sweden, Space Weather, 6, S07005, DOI: 10.1029/2007SW000343, 2008. [CrossRef]
  • Wik, M., R. Pirjola, H. Lundstedt, A. Viljanen, P. Wintoft, and A. Pulkkinen, Space weather events in July 1982 and October 2003 and the effects of geomagnetically induced currents on Swedish technical systems, Ann. Geophys., 27, 1775–1787, 2009. [CrossRef]

Current usage metrics show cumulative count of Article Views (full-text article views including HTML views, PDF and ePub downloads, according to the available data) and Abstracts Views on Vision4Press platform.

Data correspond to usage on the plateform after 2015. The current usage metrics is available 48-96 hours after online publication and is updated daily on week days.

Initial download of the metrics may take a while.