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Fig. 5.


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Histograms of the 30-min maximum of the GIC sum divided by the number of nodes in the Nordic high-voltage power grid for different ranges of |dH/dt|30 at UPS. For example, the upper left plot shows the distribution when |dH/dt|30 varies between 6 and 23 nT/min which correspond to the percentile limits of 90% and 99%, respectively. The total number of 30-min values in 1996–2008 is 227,952. The largest value of GIC30 is 38.9 A.

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