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Diurnal variation of GNSS TEC and estimated TEC using the present empirical model for April 2011, June 2012, and December 2012. The blue thin lines show diurnal TEC during different days and the bold lines connected by filled squares show the monthly mean TEC observed by GNSS. The vertical bars show the standard (1 − σ) deviations of the observed monthly mean TEC. The red solid lines show the model estimation of monthly mean TEC.
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