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The satellite observations (left), CTIPe model inputs and results (middle), and OpenGGCM-CTIM model inputs and results (right) projected on the northern hemisphere. (a) DMSP F15 total electric field, (b) DMSP F15 auroral energy flux, (c) DMSP F15 Poynting Flux, (d) CHAMP and GRACE neutral densities at 400 km altitude, (e) CTIPe total electric field input, (f) CTIPe auroral energy flux input, (g) CTIPe height-integrated Joule heating, (h) CTIPe neutral density at 400 km altitude, (i) OpenGGCM-CTIM total electric field input, (j) OpenGGCM-CTIM auroral energy flux input, (k) OpenGGCM-CTIM height-integrated Joule heating, and (l) OpenGGCM-CTIM neutral density at 400 km altitude.
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