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Fig. 1.


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GOES 5-min averaged integral proton flux (protons cm−2 s−1 sr−1) as measured by the SWPC primary GOES satellite for energy thresholds of ≥10 (red line), ≥50 (blue line), and ≥100 MeV (green line) between 13th and 16th May 2013. SWPC’s proton event threshold for issuing an S1 solar radiation storm alert of the NOAA S-scale is 10 protons cm−2 s−1 sr−1 at ≥10 MeV (

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