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Fig. 17.


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(a): Density profile of the O2 exospheric species on Europa, in the Sun-subsolar point direction, as estimated with the EGEON model (Plainaki et al. 2012, 2013), accounting for the release-yield revisions (see Milillo et al. 2015; Plainaki et al. 2015). Different configurations correspond to different orbital phases hence to different orientations between plasma impact direction and illumination. (b) Ion density profiles at Europa. The dominant component, O2+, the H2+ population, water group ions (e.g. O+, OH+ and H2O+) and the Na+, SO2+ and CO2+ trace species are considered. The flow speed (black line) of the plasma as it is mass loaded and eventually stops below the altitude of ~40 km (ionopause), is also shown (right ordinate axis). From Sittler et al. (2013).

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