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Dayside upper atmosphere model for Venus. The dotted line (a) represents the N2 density and the dashed line the CO density. In (b) Tn is the neutral temperature, Ti the ion temperature and Te the electron temperature. In (c) an ion density semi-empirical model is used. This model was computed for F10.7 = 80, latitude: 45° at noon. From Gronoff et al. (2008).
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