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Topical Review

Fig. 21.

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Kinetic properties of protons and Na+-group ions within the cusp, accumulated over 77 cusp crossings. Top panels (a, d) show flow direction histograms for protons and Na+-group ions. The middle panels (b, e) are energy-resolved pitch angle distributions, which show the flow direction and energy of ions relative to the magnetic field in 20° (protons) and 36° (Na+-group) bins. Slices through these distributions in the parallel, anti-parallel and perpendicular directions are shown in the bottom panels (c, f). These figures show protons which are flowing down toward the surface, as well as loss cone of >40° in width. Low-energy (100–300 eV) Na+-group ions appear to be upwelling from the surface, while those at energies up to 10 keV have large perpendicular energy components. Reproduced from Raines et al. (2014).

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