Open Access
Topical Review

Table 1.

Titan upper atmosphere energy sources. Adapted from Sittler et al. (2009).

Energy source Energy flux (erg/cm2/s) Global input (Watts)4 Comments
Plasma protons 1.6 × 10−4 3.4 × 107 Magnetized
Plasma electrons 1.6 × 10−4 3.4 × 107 Magnetized
Plasma heavy ions 1.5 × 10−3 3.2 × 108 Unmagnetized
Energetic ions 5.0 × 10−4–1.0 × 10−2 1.05 × 108–2.0 × 109 27 < Ep < 225 keV
Energetic electrons 2.0 × 10−4 4.0 × 107 28 < Ee < 533 keV
UV airglow 1.6 × 10−3 3.5 × 108 Altitude ~ 1300 km
UV ionization 1.6 × 10−4 3.4 × 107 Altitude ~ 1300 km
GCR 1.6 × 10−4–2.7 × 10−3 3.2 × 107–5.4 × 108
Dust 1.8 × 10−3 1.8 × 108 Interplanetary dust

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