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The X17 flare on 28 October 2003 caused an abrupt, short-duration 0.028% increase in the TSI. A time-integration of a fit of the flare’s abrupt increase and subsequent decay (blue) to TSI (red) shows a net radiant-energy release of 4.6 × 1025 J for this flare (from Kopp et al. 2005).
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