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The ion temperature climatology at ESR. Panels (a–c) are for the very quiet conditions (Kp < 1) and Panels (d–f) are for the moderately active conditions (2 ≤ Kp < 4). Panels (g–i) show the differences between the results for the moderately active conditions and very quiet conditions. Panels (a), (d), and (g) are for the winter; Panels (b), (e), and (h) are for the equinox; and Panels (c), (f), and (i) are for the summer. In each panel, the green line indicates the results at 350 km, the red line those at 275 km, and the blue those at 125 km. The error bars indicate the 95% confidence interval. The magnetic local time noon is indicated by the vertical magenta line.
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