Fig. 1.


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(a) SATIRE modeled in-phase SSI variations for UV1 (λ < 330 nm), UV2 (330 < λ < 400 nm), visible (400 < λ < 700 nm), SW radiative forcing proxy (λ > 330 nm), and TSI relative to year 1660; (b) similar to (a) but for SIM-based irradiance variations. Note that for the same TSI variations, the amplitude of SIM-based UV (λ < 330 nm) irradiance variation is about four times as large as that for SATIRE modeled SSI, SIM-based visible irradiance varies out-of-phase with the UV irradiance, the SIM-based solar forcing proxy is out-of-phase with TSI. From Maunder Minimum to the recent solar minima (1900–2005), TSI increases by 0.72 W m−2. In the modern solar maximum period (1900–2005), the TSI 11-year cycle variability is about 0.83 W m−2.

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