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Climate and solar variations in the period from AD 1400 to AD 2016. The top two panels are the same as Figure 1, but ΔT data are shown at annual resolution. The third panel shows the global atmospheric optical depth resulting from explosive volcanic activity, as reconstructed from sulphate abundances found in ice core measurements (Crowley and Unterman, 2013). The bottom panel shows the yearly occurrence rate of reports of the Thames freezing in London in a rolling 11 year window. The grey panel shows MM, while the red and blue lines show the dates of demolition of the old London Bridge and the completion of the Thames embankments, respectively.
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