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Fig. 3


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Snapshots of the modelled electric field (arrows) and GIC (dots) at the nodes of the Finland power grid. Ground conductivity model of block 25 is used for the whole area (Table 1). The mean value of the electric field is set to 1 V/km. GIC from the grid into the ground is plotted by red and from the ground into the grid by blue. Two leftmost plots: cases of the two largest GIC sums (Table 3). Two rightmost plots: cases of the two smallest GIC sums. Note that the scale of the electric field is different in each plot. The black arrow in the leftmost plot shows the location of the Pikkarala substation considered separately in Figure 7. Transmission lines are plotted by green.

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