Open Access
Issue
J. Space Weather Space Clim.
Volume 7, 2017
Article Number A22
Number of page(s) 10
DOI https://doi.org/10.1051/swsc/2017024
Published online 03 October 2017
  • Ádám A, Prácser E, Wesztergom V. 2012. Estimation of the electric resistivity distribution (EURHOM) in the European lithosphere in the frame of the EURISGIC WP2 project. Acta Geod Geophys Hung 47: 377–387. DOI:.10.1556/AGeod.47.2012.4.1. [CrossRef]
  • Arajärvi E, Pirjola RJ, Viljanen A. 2011. Effects of neutral point reactors and series capacitors on geomagnetically induced currents in a high-voltage electric power transmission system. Space Weather 9: S11005. DOI:10.1029/2011SW000715. [CrossRef]
  • Bedrosian PA, Love JJ. 2015. Mapping geoelectric fields during magnetic storms: synthetic analysis of empirical United States impedances. Geophys Res Lett 42(10): 160–170. DOI:10.1002/2015GL066636. [CrossRef]
  • Beggan CD. 2015. Sensitivity of geomagnetically induced currents to varying auroral electrojet and conductivity models. Earth Planets Space 67: 24. DOI:10.1186/s40623-014-0168-9. [CrossRef]
  • Beggan CD, Beamish D, Richards A, Kelly GS, Thomson AWP. 2013. Prediction of extreme geomagnetically induced currents in the UK high-voltage network. Space Weather 11: 1–13. DOI:10.1002/swe.20065. [CrossRef]
  • Bolduc L. 2002. GIC observations and studies in the Hydro-Québec power system. J Atmos Sol-Terr Phys 64: 1793–1802. DOI:10.1016/S1364-6826(02)00128-1. [CrossRef]
  • Boteler DH, Pirjola RJ, Nevanlinna H. 1998. The effects of geomagnetic disturbances on electrical systems at the earth’s surface. Adv Space Res 22: 17–27. DOI:10.1016/S0273-1177(97)01096-X. [CrossRef]
  • Danskin DW, Lotz SI. 2015. Analysis of geomagnetic hourly ranges. Space Weather 13: 458–468. DOI:10.1002/2015SW001184. [CrossRef]
  • Häkkinen L, Pirjola R, Sucksdorff C. 1989. EISCAT magnetometer cross and theoretical studies connected with the electrojet current system. Geophysica 25(1&2): 123–134.
  • Hermance JF, Peltier WR. 1970. Magnetotelluric fields of a line current. J Geophys Res 75: 3351–3356. DOI:10.1029/JB075i017p03351. [CrossRef]
  • Hibbs RD, Jones FW. 1978. The calculation of perturbation and induction arrows for a three-dimensional conductivity model and various two dimensional source fields. J Geophys Res 83: 5479–5485. DOI:10.1029/JB083iB11p05479. [CrossRef]
  • Langlois P, Bolduc L, Chouteau MC. 1996. Probability of occurrence of geomagnetic storms based on a study of the distribution of the electric field amplitudes measured in Abitibi, Québec, in 1993–94. J Geomag Geoelectr 48: 1033–1041. [CrossRef]
  • Lehtinen M, Pirjola R. 1985. Currents produced in earthed conductor networks by geomagnetically-induced electric fields. Ann Geophys 3: 479–484.
  • Love JJ, Rigler EJ, Pulkkinen A, Riley P. 2015. On the lognormality of historical magnetic storm intensity statistics: implications for extreme-event probabilities. Geophys Res Lett 42: 6544–6553. DOI:10.1002/2015GL064842. [CrossRef]
  • Love JJ, Coisson P, Pulkkinen A. 2016. Global statistical maps of extreme-event magnetic observatory 1 min first differences in horizontal intensity. Geophys Res Lett 43: 4126–4135. DOI:10.1002/2016GL068664. [CrossRef]
  • Molinski TS. 2002. Why utilities respect geomagnetically induced currents. J Atmos Sol-Terr Phys 64: 1765–1778. DOI:10.1016/S1364-6826(02)00126-8. [CrossRef]
  • Myllys M, Viljanen A, Rui ØA, Ohnstad TM. 2014. Geomagnetically induced currents in Norway: the northernmost high-voltage power grid in the world. J Space Weather Space Clim 4: A10. DOI:10.1051/swsc/2014007. [CrossRef] [EDP Sciences]
  • Ngwira CM, Pulkkinen A, Leila Mays M, Kuznetsova MM, Galvin AB, Simunac K, Baker DN, Li X, Zheng Y, Glocer A. 2013. Simulation of the 23 July 2012 extreme space weather event: what if this extremely rare CME was Earth directed? Space Weather 11: 671–679. DOI:10.1002/2013SW000990. [CrossRef]
  • Ngwira CM, Pulkkinen A, Kuznetsova MM, Glocer A. 2014. Modeling extreme “Carrington-type” space weather events using three-dimensional global MHD simulations. J Geophys Res Space Phys 119: 4456–4474. DOI:10.1002/2013JA019661. [CrossRef]
  • Ngwira CM, Pulkkinen AA, Bernabeu E, Eichner J, Viljanen A, Crowley G. 2015. Characteristics of extreme geoelectric fields and their possible causes: localized peak enhancements. Geophys Res Lett 42: 6916–6921. DOI:10.1002/2015GL065061. [CrossRef]
  • Nikitina L, Trichtchenko L, Boteler DH. 2016. Assessment of extreme values in geomagnetic and geo-electric field variations for Canada. Space Weather 14: 481–494. DOI:10.1002/2016SW001386. [CrossRef]
  • Pirjola R. 2010. On the flow of geomagnetically induced currents in an electric power transmission network. Can J Phys 88: 357–363. DOI:10.1139/P10-028. [CrossRef]
  • Pirjola RJ, Häkkinen LVT. 1991. Electromagnetic field caused by an auroral electrojet current system model. In: Kikuchi H, ed. Proceedings of the International URSI Symposium on Environmental and Space Electromagnetics, Tokyo, Japan, September 4–6, 1989. Tokyo: Springer-Verlag, pp. 288–298, Printed in Hong Kong, Chapter 6.5.
  • Pirjola RJ, Viljanen AT. 1991. Geomagnetic induction in the Finnish 400 kV power system. In: Kikuchi H, ed. Proceedings of the International URSI Symposium on Environmental and Space Electromagnetics, Tokyo, Japan, September 4–6, 1989. Tokyo: Springer-Verlag, pp. 276–287, Printed in Hong Kong, Chapter 6.4.
  • Pirjola R, Viljanen A. 1989. On geomagnetically-induced currents in the Finnish 400 kV power system by an auroral electrojet current. IEEE Trans Power Deliv 4: 1239–1245. DOI:10.1109/61.25609. [CrossRef]
  • Pirjola R, Boteler D, Viljanen A, Amm O. 2000. Prediction of geomagnetically induced currents in power transmission systems. Adv Space Res 26(1): 5–14. DOI:10.1016/S0273-1177(99)01019-4. [CrossRef]
  • Price AT. 1962. The theory of magnetotelluric methods when the source field is considered. J Geophys Res 67(5): 1907–1918. DOI:10.1029/JZ067i005p01907. [CrossRef]
  • Pulkkinen A, Klimas A, Vassiliadis D, Uritsky V, Tanskanen E. 2006. Spatiotemporal scaling properties of the ground geomagnetic field variations. J Geophys Res 111(A3): A03305. DOI:10.1029/2005JA011294. [CrossRef]
  • Pulkkinen A, Bernabeu E, Eichner J, Beggan C, Thomson AWP. 2012. Generation of 100-year geo-magnetically induced current scenarios. Space Weather 10: S04003. DOI:10.1029/2011SW000750. [CrossRef]
  • Pulkkinen A, Bernabeu E, Eichner J, Viljanen A, Ngwira C. 2015. Regional-scale high-latitude extreme geoelectric fields pertaining to geomagnetically induced currents. Earth Planets Space 67: 93. DOI: 10.1186/s40623-015-0255-6. [CrossRef]
  • Püthe C, Kuvshinov A. 2013. Towards quantitative assessment of the hazard from space weather. Global 3-D modellings of the electric field induced by a realistic geomagnetic storm. Earth Planets Space 65: 1017–1025. DOI:10.5047/eps.2013.03.003.
  • Riley P. 2012. On the probability of occurrence of extreme space weather events. Space Weather 10: S02012. DOI:10.1029/2011SW000734. [NASA ADS] [CrossRef]
  • Siscoe GL. 1976. On the statistics of the largest geomagnetic storms per solar cycle. J Geophys Res 81(25): 4782–4784. DOI:10.1029/JA081i025p04782. [NASA ADS] [CrossRef]
  • Tanskanen EI. 2009. A comprehensive high-throughput analysis of substorms observed by IMAGE magnetometer network: years 1993–2003 examined. J Geophys Res 114: A05204. DOI:10.1029/2008JA013682. [CrossRef]
  • Thomson A, Dawson E, Reay S. 2011. Quantifying extreme behaviour in geomagnetic activity. Space Weather 9: S10001. DOI:10.1029/2011SW000696. [CrossRef]
  • Viljanen A, Pirjola R, Häkkinen L. 1993. An attempt to reduce induction source effects at high latitudes. J Geomag Geoelectr 45: 817–831. [CrossRef]
  • Viljanen A, Pirjola R, Amm O. 1999. Magnetotelluric source effect due to 3D ionospheric current systems using the complex image method for 1D conductivity structures. Earth Planets Space 51: 933–945. DOI:10.1186/BF03351564. [CrossRef]
  • Viljanen A, Nevanlinna H, Pajunpää K, Pulkkinen A. 2001. Time derivative of the horizontal geomagnetic field as an activity indicator. Ann Geophys 19: 1107–1118. DOI:10.5194/angeo-19-1107-2001. [CrossRef]
  • Viljanen A, Pirjola R, Wik M, Adam A, Pracser E, Sakharov Ya, Katkalov Yu. 2012. Continental scale modelling of geomagnetically induced currents. J Space Weather Space Clim 2: A17. DOI:10.1051/swsc/2012017. [CrossRef] [EDP Sciences]
  • Viljanen A, Pirjola R, Pracser E, Katkalov J, Wik M. 2014. Geomagnetically induced currents in Europe. Modelled occurrence in a continent-wide power grid. J Space Weather Space Clim 4: A09. DOI:10.1051/swsc/2014006.
  • Viljanen A, Wintoft P, Wik M. 2015. Regional estimation of geomagnetically induced currents based on the local magnetic or electric field. J Space Weather Space Clim 5: A24. DOI:10.1051/swsc/2015022. [CrossRef] [EDP Sciences]
  • Wang L, Lewis AM, Ogawa Y, Jones WV, Costelloe MT. 2016. Modeling geomagnetic induction hazards using a 3-D electrical conductivity model of Australia. Space Weather 14: 1125–1135. DOI:10.1002/2016SW001436. [CrossRef]
  • Weaver JT. 1973. Induction in a layered plane earth by uniform and non-uniform source fields. Phys Earth Planet Inter 7: 266–281. DOI:10.1016/0031-9201(73)90053-8. [CrossRef]
  • Wei LH, Homeier N, Gannon JL. 2013. Surface electric fields for North America during historical geomagnetic storms. Space Weather 11: 451–462. DOI:10.1002/swe.20073. [CrossRef]
  • Wintoft P, Viljanen A, Wik M. 2016. Extreme value analysis of the time derivative of the horizontal magnetic field and computed electric field. Ann Geophys 34: 485–491. DOI:10.5194/angeo-34-485-2016. [CrossRef]
  • Zheng K, Pirjola RJ, Boteler DH, Liu L-G. 2013. Geoelectric fields due to small-scale and large-scale source currents. IEEE Trans Power Deliv 28: 442–449. DOI:10.1109/TPWRD.2012.2226248. [CrossRef]

Current usage metrics show cumulative count of Article Views (full-text article views including HTML views, PDF and ePub downloads, according to the available data) and Abstracts Views on Vision4Press platform.

Data correspond to usage on the plateform after 2015. The current usage metrics is available 48-96 hours after online publication and is updated daily on week days.

Initial download of the metrics may take a while.