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Variations of annual values of the signed open solar flux FS, from various sources, showing how modern values (from magnetogram data via PFSS modelling and from the OMNI dataset of near-Earth interplanetary observations, panel a) are extrapolated back in time using geomagnetic observations (panel b), models based on sunspot numbers (panels c and d) and cosmogenic isotopes (panel d), Sunspot number sequences used as input to the models are shown in part e. Even-/odd-numbered solar cycles are shaded white and grey and the Maunder minimum is shaded pink. (See text for further details).
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