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Time series of modelled annual values on near-Earth interplanetary parameters over 1612–2015 by Owens et al. (2017): (a) the input sunspot number data series, RC; (b) the IMF field strength, B; (c) the solar wind speed, VSW; (d) the solar wind number density, Nsw. Panel (e) shows the Earth's magnetic dipole moment, ME, from a spline of the gufm1 (for before 1900) and IGRF (for after 1900) models .
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