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Correlation coefficients, r, as a function of α for the interval of near-continuous Pα data (1996–2016). Solid lines are for correlations between annual Pα and Ap and dashed lines are for correlations between Pα and the fraction of days when Ap exceeds the overall 95 percentile level, f[Ap>Apo]. The black lines use annual means (τ = 1 yr) of Pα values computed from 5-minute means of interplanetary data, 〈Pα〉τ=1yr (i.e., the data are combined and then averaged) and the peak value (marked by the vertical solid black line) gives correlation A in Table 2. The red lines use Pαann which is compiled using annual means of all available NSW, VSW, B and sin4(θ/2) data (i.e., the data are averaged and then combined) and the peak values gives correlation B in Table 2. The 95-percentile of the overall distribution of all Ap values (observed since the data series began in 1932) is Apo = 36 nT.
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