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Table 1

The development of reconstructions of annual means of near-Earth space conditions from observations of geomagnetic activity and from models using sunspot number observations as input

  From geomagnetic data Modelled using sunspot data
Dates ∼1845–present ∼1640–present
Open Solar Flux (OSF), FS Lockwood et al. (1999) Solanki et al. (2000)
    Lockwood (2003)
    Owens and Lockwood (2012)
Photospheric flux   Solanki et al. (2002)
    Vieira and Solanki (2010)
IMF field strength, B and Solar wind speed VSW Svalgaard and Cliver (2005)  
Rouillard et al. (2007)  
  Lockwood and Owens (2011)  
  Lockwood et al. (2014a)  
Streamer Belt Width and OSF   Lockwood and Owens (2014)
IMF field strength, B Owens et al. (2016a) Owens et al. (2017)
    Rahmanifard et al. (2017)
IMF field strength, B and   Owens et al. (2017)
Solar wind speed VSW    
Solar wind number density, NSW    

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