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Table 1

Analysis of space weather predictions for the Modern Grand Maximum (MGM), the Dalton Minimum (DM) and the Maunder Minimum (MM). Averages for the intervals are given in each case. The last three columns give values for hypothetical equivalent intervals to the MGM, DM and MM in the future when Earth magnetic moment has decreased to ME = 7.468 × 1022 Am2. The Ap index is available or the whole of the MGM and the values in brackets are what was actually observed. Numbers of storm-like days and substorm-like hours have been rounded up or down to the nearest integer.

  Modern grand maximum (MGM) Dalton minimum (DM) Maunder minimum (MM) Repeat of MGM Repeat of DM Repeat of MM
Dates 1938–2000 1797–1825 1640–1710 c. 2050 c. 2050 c. 2050
Magnetic moment, ME at interval centre (1022 Am2) 7.958 8.379 8.788 7.468 7.468 7.468
Annual mean Ap, <Ap>τ = 1 yr 15.26 (15.01) 6.94 3.31 13.65 6.44 2.97
Number of highly active days p.a., f[Ap>Apo] × Nyr 22 (25) 2 0 19 1 0
Annual mean AE, <AE>τ = 1 yr (nT) 230.8 110.2 52.4 205.6 94.7 43.7
Number of highly active hours p.a., f[Ap>Apo] × Nyr 512 140 28 474 119 21

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