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Fig. 4


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Observation geometry of (top) red glow and (bottom) white pillars in the geomagnetic coordinate by Memambetsu Magnetic Observatory (M, 34° magnetic latitude) and Aikawa Weather Station (A, 27.5° magnetic latitude). The top panel shows the top part of red glow with 45° elevation angle at M and with 15° elevation angle at A. The bottom panel shows the top part of white pillars with 60° elevation angle at M and with 20° elevation angle at A.

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