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(a) The altitude of the International Space Station from 2009 to 2019; (b) monthly (blue) and smoothed (red) sunspot numbers (data from:; (c) Oulu NM count rate in counts/sec (data from:; (d) DOSTEL-1 (D-1) total absorbed daily dose rate; and (e) DOSTEL-2 (D-2) total absorbed daily dose rate.

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