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Vector representation of the maximum peak-to-peak, September 2017 storm-time, electric field magnitudes at 01:25 UT on 8th September 2017. There is an inherent 90° ambiguity in these directions. However, they mostly do not correspond with the directions of coastlines. Light and dark grey lines are the longest (>50 km) 12 high-voltage – 275 kV and 400 kV, respectively – transmission lines in the region (Viljanen et al., 2013).
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