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Fig. 11

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Comparison of maximum peak-to-peak, storm-time, electric field magnitudes and directions estimated for the Halloween storm at 21:20 UT on 30th October 2003 and September 2017 storm at 01:25 UT on 8th September 2017. In both cases, electric fields were estimated by multiplying storm-time, magnetic fields with Z ij from the individual site. For the Halloween 2003 storm, magnetic fields from ESK were used, whereas for the September 2017 storm, magnetic fields from RAN were used. Note 1:5 scaling of the lengths of the vectors for the two storms.

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