Fig. 1


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Illustration of solar activity impacts on the Earth’s space environment during Solar Cycle 24. The solar activity increased the Total Solar Irradiance (TSI; white dots) during the solar maximum. Whole-disk observations of the solar corona in the extreme ultraviolet light (Fe IX, 171 Å) from the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) instrument onboard NASA’s Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) show numerous brightenings caused by magnetic active regions emerging from the solar interior. Aurora images at the bottom are taken from the International Space Station at different solar cycle stages. The upper right corner shows a composite image of the Sun during the total solar eclipse of 2017, at the maximum of solar activity. It includes observations from the NASA instruments LASCO (SOHO mission, in red color), AIA (SDO mission, in brown color), and ground observations of the inner corona by Jay M. Pasachoff.

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