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Table 5

The mean and StD of the density ratios, the amplitude error and StD (%; negative is underestimation), and the timing error and StD (h; negative means model peak too early) and correlation coefficient R for 28 storm cases. The best values are printed in bold.

MSIS00 JB2008 DTM2013 DTM2020 Oper DTM2020 Research
μ/σ (all phases) 1.10/30% 1.02/27% 0.98/25% 1.06/25% 1.00/22%
Storms 2001–2003 1.02/28% 0.97/24% 0.96/23% 1.02/24% 1.01/21%
μ/σ (phase 2 + 3) 1.15/33% 1.03/29% 0.98/28% 1.09/28% 1.01/24%
Amplitude error/σ storms 2001–2003 −52%/23% 27%/22% 47%/33% −32%/19% −24%/15%
−40%/26% 35%/10% 65%/25% −34%/25% −28%/19%
Timing error/σ −1.1/1.9 −0.3/3.0 −0.6/2.0 −0.1/2.2 0.7/2.6
R 0.84 0.86 0.87 0.87 0.90

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