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Table 1

Normalized root mean square deviation as a percentage for reference, forecast, and analysis over three different storm periods (2003 storm: October 26–30, 2003, 2004 storm: July 26–30, 2004, and 2002 storm: September 27 – October 2, 2002). The 2003 storm reference performs especially poorly due to missing solar wind forcing measurements, while the Forecast benefits from assimilation of all data up to 30 min ago, and the Analysis state includes assimilation of all data in the current assimilation interval.

Datasets assimilated
All sats
Only CHAMP
Only GRACE-A
Only GRACE-B
Storm Satellite Reference Forecast Analysis Forecast Analysis Forecast Analysis Forecast Analysis
2003 storm CHAMP 159.47 26.35 16.12 21.98 14.82 22.52 21.33 23.14 21.61
GRACE A 235.82 35.46 15.97 28.32 26.63 29.39 14.75 29.54 15.55
GRACE B 232.84 35.02 15.82 27.96 26.30 29.04 14.80 29.29 15.48
2004 storm CHAMP 112.10 37.52 31.35 37.06 25.11 36.70 35.65 37.90 36.58
GRACE A 179.22 52.95 30.52 51.93 48.62 55.69 33.05 57.47 33.80
GRACE B 169.61 50.40 29.28 49.25 46.34 52.88 31.76 54.70 32.22
2002 storm CHAMP 29.56 18.44 12.48 16.88 8.68 17.19 16.76 18.73 18.68
GRACE A 35.31 22.19 8.61 23.58 23.26 20.51 9.49 22.45 10.44
GRACE B 35.85 21.86 8.04 22.67 22.38 20.48 9.62 22.21 9.21

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