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Variations of the gridded mean ΔfoF2 with increasing <ap>24 h at the northern hemisphere stations (from top to bottom: Dikson, Norilsk, Yakutsk, Petropavlovsk, Irkutsk, Wakkanai, Kokubunji, Yamagawa, and Okinawa); the error bars indicate the lower and upper quartiles of the gridded ΔfoF2. (a–d) present the variations under the seasonal conditions of March equinox, June Solstice, September equinox, and December solstice, respectively.
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