Fig. 8


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Cartoon depictions for the evolutions of the ionosonde backscatter plumes. The yellow pane indicates the north direction (B-perpendicular direction) of radio waves at PUR station. The red curves represent ionospheric irregularities marked by plume cluster A and plume cluster B. The dot-black lines in the yellow pane represent the northwest, north, and northeast directions of radio waves transmitted from PUR station.

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