Table 2

Summary of the processing strategy and correction models depending on the adopted positioning model.

Parameter PPP positioning RTK positioning
Functional model SF-IF PPP ionosphere-float kinematic relative positioning
Observation GRAPHIC LC of GPS carrier-phase and pseudorange DF DD carrier-phase and pseudorange
Observable weighting scheme An elevation-dependent scheme based on the cosecant function
Zenith-referenced a priori sigma of observables Pseudorange 30 cm; carrier-phase 3 mm
Elevation cut-off angle 10°
Sampling interval 30 s
Satellite orbits and clock products Precise final provided by IGS
Receiver clock Estimated as a white noise-like parameter Eliminated due to double-differencing
Satellite code biases handling Corrected with CODE products (Villiger et al., 2019)
Tropospheric delay handling A priori corrections from Saastamoinen’s (Saastamoinen, 1973) model and GMF mapping function (Boehm et al., 2006); Wet Zenith Tropospheric Delays are estimated
Ionospheric delay handling Eliminated with GRAPHIC LC DD ionospheric delays are estimated as loosely constrained parameters
Ambiguity handling Estimated as float constants over each continuous observation arc estimated and fixed to integers with MLAMBDA (Chang et al., 2005) and validated with W-ratio (Wang et al., 1998)
Parameter estimation method Kalman filter
Station coordinate handling Static Kinematic
Antenna phase center offsets and variations Corrected with Antex igs14.atx (Rebischung et al., 2016)
Relativistic effects, tides, phase wind-up effect Corrected (Kouba, 2015; Wu et al., 1992)

Current usage metrics show cumulative count of Article Views (full-text article views including HTML views, PDF and ePub downloads, according to the available data) and Abstracts Views on Vision4Press platform.

Data correspond to usage on the plateform after 2015. The current usage metrics is available 48-96 hours after online publication and is updated daily on week days.

Initial download of the metrics may take a while.