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Feature 3 along with its modelled replica. The time axes cover the same duration, with t = 0 in the model corresponding to the minimum electron density (i.e. the maximum of phase change) lying on the line of sight. The parameters used here are: Φ0 = 8 × 108 rad Hz, Λ = 20 km, θ = 7° and α = 1.89× 105 rad Hz m−1.
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