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The phase perturbations associated with the simple sine wave perturbation given by equation (2) (red dashed line) and the perturbation given by equation (10) (black solid line). The minima of curvature for both curves are also marked. Both are normalised to an amplitude of 1 and wavelength of 1 and have α = 0. The harmonic has a relative amplitude of A = −0.12.
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