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Figure 5


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(a–l) Precipitating proton energy spectrum (i.e. differential number flux) at selected locations in the northern-hemisphere cusp region as a function of time in the simulation. (m–o) Temporal variations in the radial magnetic field component at three virtual spacecraft placed in the high-altitude cusp at 10, 12 and 14 MLT. Black arrows indicate times preceding signatures of the leading edge of incoming FTEs and are reproduced above panels d–l. The thin dashed lines in panels g–i indicate the theoretical time of detection of enhanced precipitating proton flux, as a function of proton energy, following the arrival of selected FTEs in the high-altitude cusp.

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