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Figure 1


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Example of TEC N-S gradient calculation over Italy. Original TEC map using 5-minute data interval (left panel) with the 0.1° latitude × 0.1° longitude resolution (as indicated by the black grid); TEC map evaluated on a regular grid (red dots) having a 100 km spacing over the N-S direction (middle panel); corresponding TEC N-S gradient map (right panel).

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