Figure 3


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For GONG data a time-latitude “butterfly” diagram of radial magnetic field is shown in the top panel, and the polar flux plotted against time in the bottom panel. In the bottom plot, the polar region is defined as poleward of ±60°, and the radial flux is plotted, with the axis to the right indicating the mean polar radial field strength. Adapted and updated from Petrie (2023).

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