Table 2

Differences in the SEPMOD modelled onset times of the 2021 October 9 SEP event at the various observers using the default code and the two fixed-source options.

Observed Default + Solar flare +Coronal shock
Bepi 08:00 UT +6.0 h −1.5 h −1.5 h
SolO 07:30 UT +6.5 h −1.0 h −1.0 h
PSP 07:00 UT +7.5 h −0.5 h −.5 h
STEREO-A 07:30 UT +6.5 h −1.0 h −1.0 h
Earth 13:00 UT +11.0 h +11.0 h −6.5 h

Notes. The first column shows the approximate (to the nearest half-hour) observed SEP event onset times at each spacecraft, while the remaining columns report the corresponding differences in the simulated onset times for different versions of SEPMOD. Positive (negative) offsets indicate that the predicted onset took place later (earlier) than observed. For each time estimate, we have referred mainly to the orange SEP time series in Figures 68, with energy ranges of 5.9–9.1 MeV at Bepi, 14.6–15.7 MeV at SolO, 13.5–16.0 MeV at PSP, 15.0–17.1 MeV at STEREO-A, and 7.8–25 MeV at SOHO.

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