J. Space Weather Space Clim.
Volume 6, 2016
Scientific Challenges in Thermosphere-Ionosphere Forecasting
|Number of page(s)||22|
|Published online||26 April 2016|
Estimation of energy budget of ionosphere-thermosphere system during two CIR-HSS events: observations and modeling
Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA
2 Sciences Systems and Applications, Inc., Hampton, VA 23681, USA
3 NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA 23681, USA
4 Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais, Sao Jose dos Campos, Sao Paulo 12227-010, Brazil
5 HAO/NCAR, Boulder, CO 80301, USA
* Corresponding author: Olga.Verkhoglyadova@jpl.nasa.gov
Accepted: 14 March 2016
We analyze the energy budget of the ionosphere-thermosphere (IT) system during two High-Speed Streams (HSSs) on 22–31 January, 2007 (in the descending phase of solar cycle 23) and 25 April–2 May, 2011 (in the ascending phase of solar cycle 24) to understand typical features, similarities, and differences in magnetosphere-ionosphere-thermosphere (IT) coupling during HSS geomagnetic activity. We focus on the solar wind energy input into the magnetosphere (by using coupling functions) and energy partitioning within the IT system during these intervals. The Joule heating is estimated empirically. Hemispheric power is estimated based on satellite measurements. We utilize observations from TIMED/SABER (Thermosphere-Ionosphere-Mesosphere Energetics and Dynamics/Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometry) to estimate nitric oxide (NO) and carbon dioxide (CO2) cooling emission fluxes. We perform a detailed modeling study of these two similar HSS events with the Global Ionosphere-Thermosphere Model (GITM) and different external driving inputs to understand the IT response and to address how well the model reproduces the energy transport. GITM is run in a mode with forecastable inputs. It is shown that the model captures the main features of the energy coupling, but underestimates NO cooling and auroral heating in high latitudes. Lower thermospheric forcing at 100 km altitude is important for correct energy balance of the IT system. We discuss challenges for a physics-based general forecasting approach in modeling the energy budget of moderate IT storms caused by HSSs.
Key words: Ionosphere (general) / Thermosphere / Energy distribution / Solar wind / Modelling
© O.P. Verkhoglyadova et al., Published by EDP Sciences 2016
This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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