J. Space Weather Space Clim.
Volume 11, 2021
|Number of page(s)||9|
|Published online||18 February 2021|
Agora – Historical space weather events and observations
The Dalton Minimum and John Dalton’s Auroral Observations
18 Ingleside Road, Lexington, 02420, MA, USA
2 Institute for Space-Earth Environmental Research, Nagoya University, 4648601 Nagoya, Japan
3 Institute for Advanced Researches, Nagoya University, 4648601 Nagoya, Japan
4 UK Solar System Data Centre, Space Physics and Operations Division, RAL Space, Science and Technology Facilities Council, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Harwell Oxford, Didcot, OX11 0QX Oxfordshire, UK
Accepted: 26 December 2020
In addition to the regular Schwabe cycles of approximately 11 y, “prolonged solar activity minima” have been identified through the direct observation of sunspots and aurorae, as well as proxy data of cosmogenic isotopes. Some of these prolonged minima have been regarded as grand solar minima, which are arguably associated with the special state of the solar dynamo and have attracted significant scientific interest. In this paper, we review how these prolonged solar activity minima have been identified. In particular, we focus on the Dalton Minimum, which is named after John Dalton. We review Dalton’s scientific achievements, particularly in geophysics. Special emphasis is placed on his lifelong observations of auroral displays over approximately five decades in Great Britain. Dalton’s observations for the auroral frequency allowed him to notice the scarcity of auroral displays in the early 19th century. We analyze temporal variations in the annual frequency of such displays from a modern perspective. The contemporary geomagnetic positions of Dalton’s observational site make his dataset extremely valuable because his site is located in the sub-auroral zone and is relatively sensitive to minor enhancements in solar eruptions and solar wind streams. His data indicate clear solar cycles in the early 19th century and their significant depression from 1798 to 1824. Additionally, his data reveal a significant spike in auroral frequency in 1797, which chronologically coincides with the “lost cycle” that is arguably located at the late Solar Cycle 4. Therefore, John Dalton’s achievements can still benefit modern science and help us improve our understanding of the Dalton Minimum.
Key words: aurora / Dalton minimum / John Dalton / scientific history / solar cycles / the lost cycle
© S.M. Silverman & H. Hayakawa, Published by EDP Sciences 2021
This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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