Open Access

Table 1.

IRI milestones.

Year Event (reference) Description Database
1968 COSPAR establishes IRI Working Group K. Rawer, Chair; WG members predominantly from space community (satellite and rocket measurements)
1969 URSI joins IRI project New WG members from ground observation community
1975 IRI-75: Set of Tables (Rawer et al. 1975) Representative values for equat., low, mid latitudes Ionosonde, ICS, AEROS
1978 IRI-79: URSI Special Rep.: (Rawer et al. 1978a) Global coverage using CCIR maps for peak parameters, modified for foF1 and foE; using IG12 with foF2 Global ionosonde network
1981 IRI-79: WDC-A-STP Rep. (Rawer et al. 1981)
1986 IRI-86: floppy disk for PC (Bilitza 1985, 1986)
  • Improved Ne at low latitudes

  • Global Te, Ti models

AEROS-A,-B, AE-C,-D,-E, ISIS-1, -2, ICS data
1990 IRI-90: NSSDC Report (Bilitza 1990)
  • URSI maps for foF2

  • Improved NmE model

  • More global ionosonde data

  • Incoherent scatter (ICS) data

1995 IRI-95: online (IRIWeb) (Bilitza 1997) Improvements at low latitudes DE-2 data
1999 URSI resolution IRI recognized as the international standard for the ionosphere
2001 IRI-2001 (Bilitza 2001)
  • Two new options for Ne D-region

  • new models for F 1 and B 0, B 1

  • STORM model

  • New model for Te

  • Rocket compilations

  • Ionsonde network

  • Stormtime ionosonde data

  • Intercosmos 19, 24, 25

2007 IRI-2007 (Bilitza & Reinisch 2008)
  • Two new options for Ne topside

  • new ion composition model

  • spread-F occurrence model

  • TS: Alouette 1, 2, ISIS 1, 2

  • AE-C,-E, Intercosmos 24

  • Brazilian ionosonde data

2012 IRI-2012 (this article) See Section 2.

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